Gadgets & Trends 19 Mar 2018

baselworld 2018, a glimpse of what’s to come

The largest watch and jewellery event of the year will unveil the latest in timekeeping from hundreds of watch manufacturers from around the world, starting March 22. Before that, we have here a sneak peek at what you can look forward to  Set in the eponymous town of Basel in northern Switzerland, Baselworld is the watch and jewellery show that defines the landscape of the watch market for the rest of the year. And we’re not talking only about luxury watches or Swiss watches. Unlike the Salon International De La Haute Horlogerie (SIHH), which showcases only brands that are premium and higher up on the luxury scale, Baselworld is home to exhibitors from all segments and from around the world. Having said that, the range of brands at Baselworld from the luxury and prestige segments is as wide as you can imagine. From the prestigious Patek Philippe and the pioneering Breguet to the iconic Omega and the grand Rolex, the products showcased by the high-end names at the fair always baffle one and all.For the Baselworld 2018 edition, there have been a few pre-event announcements that have already got the conversation started. In fact, a few brands even had the buzz going on their 2018 releases before SIHH in January. Take a look at the announcements of new products that we are particularly looking forward to seeing at the fair. The Hublot Big Bang Unico Red Magic With Vibrant Ceramic  Hublot’s all about the ‘art of fusion’, and after creating their own gold alloys, hardened carbon fibre and leather-and-rubber fusions, this year, they’re all set to present some vibrant ceramic. Yes, ceramic in watches isn’t something new. It’s been used extensively by Rado, Chanel, Dior, Panerai, and even Hublot in the past. However, there haven’t quite been any drastic colour variations beyond blacks, whites and other neutral tones, barring some exceptions. Now though, Hublot’s research and development has led to ceramic in a rich, vibrant hue like red for the first time. And not just that; with extreme density, it’s even harder than conventional ceramic. Moreover, the watch we’ll see it in incorporates this material in every component of the case. The limited edition watch is in a 45mm case, housing a Unico HUB124 in-house movement, and features an open-worked display. The brand calls the vivid red the ‘first coloured ceramic’, which implies that there could be other rich hues as well. Won’t that be vibrant!  TAG Heuer’s New Partnership With Aston Martin And 55 Years Of The Carrera Every year, a few brands end up marking milestones of various kinds. This year, one of them will be TAG Heuer, celebrating 55 years of the Carrera collection. A major pillar for the brand, and a strong representation of its association with motorsports, the Carrera collection will see an evolution in this anniversary year, with the new Heuer 02 Calibre manufacture movement. The new calibre will be seen in four new Carrera chronograph models, each in a 43mm case, either in steel, rose gold or ceramic. The steel versions are either with a blue bezel and blue leather strap or with a black bezel and brown leather strap. The black ceramic version comes with a black ceramic bracelet, while the gold model has a black leather strap. All models have skeleton displays, with distinctive hour markers, hands and chronograph counters. A Never-Seen-Before Avatar Of The Breitling Navitimer Breitling is in a new set of hands this year, with a new CEO, Georges Kern – who was with IWC earlier – and a new creative director, Guy Bove. Everyone’s looking forward to seeing the first collection of Breitling under Kern. For now, the fresh perspective that Kern and Bove bring to the brand is already quite discernible, through the new edition Navitimer 8, a visibly distinct departure from the Navitimers we’ve seen so far. This sharp evolution of the collection comes in the form of a cleaner design for one of the most iconic series of aviation watches ever. The inner-bezel slide rule is gone, which instantly clears up the dial in a big way. So for those who found the Navitimer too cluttered, this is good news. he other significant development is the replacement of the hour markers with Arabic numerals – a simple change that gives it a more contemporary look. The numerals do bear a striking resemblance to those used by IWC on their Big Pilot watches. However, for those who liked the Navitimer as it was, the good news is that this new edition doesn’t replace the existing designs, as Kern informs. It is just an addition to the line. The new Navitimer 8 comes in five versions – two chronograph versions, one with the date and the other with day and date indicators; two automatic versions, one with date and the other a Day-Date; and finally the Navitimer 8 Unitimer, which has a multiple time zone display. These five watches will be available in various combinations of colours and gold, steel and leather.   

Gadgets & Trends 30 May 2017

carbon fibre at the haute horlogerie

Officine PaneraiPanerai was founded in Florence by Giovanni Panerai then a watchmaker shop which was later renamed to 'Officine Panerai'. Dated from 1938 on, the brand produced exclusively diver's watches for the italian navy on a secret mission, so that the both models 'Luminor' and the cronograph 'Mare Nostrum' were offered later in 1993 for sale on the free market. Due to the fact that recently the actor Sylvester Stallone wore the 'Luminor Logo' in the movie 'Daylight' (1996), the market demand for diver's watches with tall dials has increased rapidly. Since 1997 Panerai belongs to the Richemont group.The bold military divers of the Gruppo GammaThe success of the italian military 'Gruppo Gamma' divers was infamous and feared by their enemies. In 1941, while sitting on manned torpedos, they sank two british dreadnoughts in the harbour of Alexandria. Winston Churchill declared the sucess of the military diving division in this manner: "Six italians in rather unusual diving suits and laughably little cost, have swung the military balance of power in the Mediterranean in favor of the Axis". Customized for the extraordinary conditions of the military division 'Gruppo Gamma' and their operation methods, Panerai developed sophisticated diver's watch masterpieces, designs and patents. Many of them appear in various new models nowadays as an inspiration basis.  Read the full article here : http://carsinfashion.blogspot.de/2017/05/carbon-fibre-at-haute-horlogerie.html

Gadgets & Trends 17 May 2017

the new lamborghini phone

Luxury phones still have a market. Just like the cars, the new Lamborghini phone is made with liquid metal that is described as “stronger than titanium” which makes it ready for more rugged use. Device is durable yet classy-looking with the fine Italian leather material and golden sttching. Features include the following: 5.5-inch QHD screen, Qualcomm Snapdragon 820 processor, 64GB onboard storage, 4GB RAM, dual SIM support, and a 3250 mAh battery. We’re not convinced about the processor because the brand could have used the newest S835 instead.So let’s talk about the price. The Lamborghini Alpha One costs $2,110 which is way more expensive than the latest premium flagship phones like the Samsung Galaxy S8, S8 Plus, Sony Xperia XZ Premium, LG G6, Huawei P10, and the recently announced HTC U11. Lamborghini ALPHA ONE will be available in Russia, South Korea, UAE, China, and the United Kingdom.

Gadgets & Trends 28 Mar 2017

cosmetic that gives the desired results

 Lab Cosmética Específica is one of the premium cosmetic brands that is more surprising because of the great power that natural ingredients possess. This brand had to develop a line of high natural cosmetic products for skin care. It is present in hundreds pharmacies and they sells internationally.Lab Cosmética Específica focuses on the development of a high-end dermocosmetic line, formulated with the combination of selected actives treated with biotechnology in Spanish laboratories of last generation, which achieve an exceptional result by introducing them a percentage of active principle far superior to Rest of the market lines. As a reward you get results up to five times faster.Its creams are ideal to take care of your skin daily and its treatments will be in charge of actively nourishing it in a safe and lasting way, getting your beauty to last through the years.Although the positive effects of their treatments are visible from the first application, they have created a product that day after day takes care of your precious skin and its products of high range are reasonably priced for daily use.Lab Cosmética Específica uses the latest advances in biotechnology, as well as the use of phytocomposites and natural actives in the development of its treatments, choosing for it the best in botany and marine extracts that provide immediate effectiveness and extraordinary results.We work without parabens, perfumes or silicones, thus creating 100% hypoallergenic products.Nuestros laboratorios de última generación, elaboran cosméticos faciales de alta gama respondiendo a los estándares médicos y científicos más exigentes. Durante este proceso no se recurre a ningún tipo de experimentación con animales.

Gadgets & Trends 17 Mar 2017

timepiece celebrates the year of the rooster

Blancpain has unveiled a new limited edition of its world-exclusive wristwatch equipped with a traditional Chinese calendar to celebrate the coming lunar New Year of Rooster. The Le Brassus based watch manufacturer wanted to honour this age-old culture by introducing a useful yet symbolic model that indicates an auspicious year of the Rooster in 2017.The Traditional Chinese Calendar is based on fundamental principles established for millennia and profoundly rooted in Chinese tradition. On the dial, the hours, minutes and the Gregorian calendar rub shoulders with the main indications of the Chinese calendar: traditional double-hour indication, day, month with indication of leap months, signs of the zodiac, as well as the five elements and the 10 celestial stems.The combination of the latter with the 12 animals of the zodiac that represent the terrestrial branches follows the sixty-year cycle that is central to Chinese culture. The moon phases, a key element in Blancpain complete calendars, are also presented and play a particularly important role in this model, given the link between the lunar cycle and traditional Chinese months.Contrary to the Gregorian solar calendar which uses the solar day as the base unit, the traditional Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, meaning a solar calendar with the lunar cycle (29.53059 days) as its base unit.Since a year comprising of 12 lunar months (354.36707 days) is approximately 11 days too short compared with the tropical or solar year (365.242374days), a leap month is sometimes added to preserve the match with the cycle of the seasons. Given that each month of the Chinese calendar, including the leap months, begins on the day of the new moon, its length is either 29 or 30 days.This means that when a year comprises a leap month, this 13-month year will be longer than the tropical year. On the contrary, when there is no leap month, the year of 12 lunar months is shorter than the tropical year. This distinctive feature is the reason behind the variable date of the Chinese New Year.

Gadgets & Trends 03 Jan 2017

levitating portable speaker

The LG PJ9 Levitating Portable Speaker Hovers Magically in Midair While Delivering Great Audio Performance LG Electronics (LG) is showcasing its futuristic Levitating Portable Speaker (model PJ9) at CES 2017, the proving ground for exciting technology from across the electronics industry. The wireless speaker hovers in place over the accompanying Levitation Station to deliver high-quality audio while making quite an impression with its eye-catching design. In addition to its striking looks, the versatile speaker gives users the ability to seamlessly play music, podcasts and other audio content in the home as well as outdoors. The PJ9 creates its stunning visual effect using powerful electromagnets housed inside the Levitation Station to give the speaker its unique trait of being untouched by any surface or wires when playing. At the core is a 360-degree omnidirectional speaker with turbine blade-inspired design and deep bass courtesy of the subwoofer embedded inside the Levitation Station. The PJ9 also features Dual Passive Radiator technology to reproduce flush mid-range tones and crisp highs. When its 10-hour battery begins to run low, the smart portable speaker automatically descends to the Levitation Station and begins to charge wirelessly with no intervention from the listener and no interruption in the music. The PJ9 is IPX7 compliant in order to withstand any adverse weather condition when being used outdoors. For added convenience and versatility, Multipoint technology enables the speaker to connect to two Bluetooth devices simultaneously. “Our latest addition to our growing lineup of premium wireless audio devices is not only eye-catching but also communicates the message that LG is serious about bringing something different to the table,” said Brian Kwon, president and CEO of LG’s Home Entertainment Company. “We are absolutely dedicated to exploring new concepts and to pioneering innovative designs for its advanced audio products for consumers around the world, and the PJ9 is the latest example of this commitment.”  

Gadgets & Trends 23 Dec 2016

ultimate electronics

BRYSTONIf you want what the professionals have, then Bryston electronics are a must for the audiophiles. Located in Canada, Bryston ships its quality electronics around the world, through carefully-selected authorized dealers. Its emphasis on cutting-edge technology and stance on quality, including a 20-year warranty, practically guarantees the best in satisfaction. The company has won numerous awards over the years from magazines and industry officials. Bryston is also a favorite with celebrities, who have used Bryston devices professionally and also chosen them for their luxury homes. Each Bryston component is created and handled with care, from the time it is designed to the time it is plugged in. CLASSÉClassé is Canada's leading maker of high-performance music and theater components. Since building their first amplifier in 1980, passion and dedication have inspired the research that yields Classé's outstanding no-compromise electronics. For those who invest in a Classé-based system, the entertainment experience can be truly breathtaking. Every component is designed and built to last a lifetime and delivers beyond exceptional performance and value. BOWERS & WILKINBowers & Wilkins makes the world's most advanced home cinema, hi-fi and iPod speakers. The quest for perfecting the loudspeaker began in 1966, and today B&W products are used by Abbey Road Studios and music lovers everywhere turn to the brand for quality sound. Their sound systems and accessories create sound so immediate, so detailed, so textured, you'll want to touch it. GOLDMUNDSince 1978, Goldmund has been dedicated to the accurate reproduction of sound and images, striving to become a leader in the creation, development and manufacturing of the industry's most advanced technologies, including audio and video systems, home-networking and music distribution. Through meticulous testing of the most innovative technology, Goldmund produces a precise sound with the least possible loss of quality through the different stages. CRESTRONCrestron is the world's leading producer of advanced control and automation systems, creating innovative technology and making the way people's lives more comfortable and their work more efficient. Offering integrated solutions to control audio, video, computer, IP and environmental systems, Crestron streamlines technology, to improve the quality of life for its customers - from the boardroom and conference tables straight into their homes. BANG & OLUFSENBang & Olufsen manufactures a highly distinctive and exclusive range of televisions, music systems, loudspeakers, telephones, and multimedia products that combine technological excellence with emotional appeal. Founded in 1925 in Struer, Denmark, Bang & Olufsen is world-renowned for its distinctive range of quality products that represent the company's vision: Courage to constantly question the ordinary in search of surprising, long-lasting experiences. The existence of Bang & Olufsen is and has always been based on the initiatives of incredibly innovative and creative people. ROTELRotel has maintained a competitive edge in the electronics industry by solely devoting their resources and efforts into created the very best in audio/visual products. The family-owned business has expanded since its start in 1966, to include a larger, international "family" of engineers, designers, music and movie enthusiasts, and professional audio business people from countries such as Japan, UK, USA, China and Korea. Audiophiles from around the world continue to recognize Rotel as one of the best performance-for-value manufacturers in the industry. AERIAL ACOUSTICSWith years of science and experience behind their products, Aerial Acoustics is a leader in the audio industry. Cabinets made in Denmark and driver technology that is both German and Danish, come together to produce big sound that is crystal clear. KEFThe KEF name comes from the company's origins at the Kent Engineering & Foundry, a metal-working company in Kent, UK. In 1961, founder Raymond Cooke, an ex-BBC Electrical Engineer, began experimenting with new materials and technologies to create products with superior acoustic quality. He wanted to reproduce the sound to sound as natural and realistic as their original source. From even the beginning, the pioneering inventiveness of KEF loudspeakers was evident and the company has been revered by audiophiles for its innovative, high-performance loudspeakers. 

Gadgets & Trends 22 Dec 2016

rolls-royce designs luggage worthy of the wraith

If you've exercised the level of taste to make a Rolls-Royce Wraith your chosen method of transportation, chances are that you aren't about to put any old Samsonites in the trunk. So to provide its customers with the same level of luxury and quality they've come to expect from their automobile, Rolls-Royce has designed and crafted this set of fitted luggage specifically for the fastback luxury coupe. Rather than outsource or license the luggage set from an off-the-shelf supplier, Rolls-Royce designed the pieces in-house. Each piece is hand-crafted by white-gloved craftsmen, and incorporate features such as carbon-fiber frames, mono or two-tone leather, machine-polished billet aluminum fastenings, and widely-spaced wheels with self-righting hubs that keep the Double-R emblem stabilized – just like on an actual Rolls-Royce automobile. The set includes six pieces: two valises, three weekender bags, and one garment carrier. The pieces are available individually from any of the automaker's dealerships around the world, or can be bought as a set for the fitting price of $45,854 – which may seem like a lot for a set of luggage to some, but seems like barely a drop in the bucket relative to the $360,000 starting price for a new Wraith. Like a Rolls-Royce automobile, each example is made to order to the customer's own specifications. By Noah Joseph

Gadgets & Trends 01 Nov 2016

minimalissimo magazine about air aroma

Article by: http://minimalissimo.com/air-aroma/Air AromaIt’s amazing how vividly we are able to experience brand concepts from our own living room these days. Stunning images, delightful movies and bewitching brand stories are delivered right to our screens in seconds. But there is one sense not being stimulated in that context, a sense that goes right to our brains, touching our feelings and memories nearly unfiltered and with long-lasting impact: the smell.So when it comes to luring customers into your actual brick and mortar retail or making sure your guests will never forget the amazing experience they had at your place, there is one important question contemporary marketers will ask: What does your brand smell like? As soon as you found out about that, Scent Marketing manufacturer Air Aroma will cater to your needs.Fragrance and technology merge to deliver unique olfactive experiences. Air Aroma designs minimalist diffusion systems and bespoke scents for premium global brands.So surely when it comes to perfecting your brand’s smell, it’s not only about what the smell should invoke but also about the way the smell is diffused. This aspect should be deeply embedded into a sensory experience. Air Aroma approaches this topic with a set of beautiful, minimalist diffusers that perfectly blend into any surrounding while being purposefully created design objects in themselves. These diffusers will either hold a signature scent that Air Aroma would create exclusively for you, or one of their carefully curated scents, ranging from essential oils to Arobalance — a scent specifically created to relieve stress. With humans able to differentiate approximately 10,000 odours, you can be sure Air Aroma will find the perfect fit for your demands.

Gadgets & Trends 17 Sep 2016

foldable phone?

I definitely want this! Flexible displays that can be bent and folded show a natural progression of things because it is high time we experiment with such screens indifferent devices. There always have been rumours about foldable smartphones launching this year or that year and we haven’t witnessed it as yet. But now it seems that we may finally have a smartphone that can ‘actually’ fold its screen. As you know Samsung is the pioneer whenever there is a discussion about flexible screens and this surely doesn’t come as a surprise that in the field of foldable smartphone displays, Samsung has made some headway.Samsung wowed us all with its Galaxy Round that how phones could also flaunt curved displays and since then Galaxy Edge has become a mainstay. Now the rumour that filtered through sources and reached us is that Samsung is working on a foldable phone and the company has termed it as Project Valley. So this new smartphone will boast of a screen that instead of those fixed curved displays; will flaunt a screen which will be actually foldable and if reports are to be believed, this amazing new phone may hit the markets next year. One thing is sure though, if it does succeed in making an appearance in the market next year, people are going to throng the stores to own this unique smartphone.Source; www.infabode.com 

Gadgets & Trends 31 May 2016

is a rolex watch a good investment?

Many experts would argue that Rolex watches are not great masterpieces nor are they hugely valuable within the serious watch investor. But, Rolex is the biggest watch brand in the world and this can create huge division in watch circles. Those people who consider themselves serious watch collectors may be contemptuous towards Rolex, others may recognise the quality and craftsmanship of a Rolex even if it’s not amongst the very elite of watchmaking.When it comes to investing in watches, it is not as simple as picking a single brand that you believe will appreciate. The model, material, price and provenance will be as important when choosing your investment. Even though separating the fact and the fiction when investing in watches is important, never underestimate the power a good myth has in boosting the value of an investment.A Rolex could be a better investment than many other luxury brands because quite simply people care about Rolex. This could be partly due to them holding their prices quite well through the years which creates a cycle – the better they hold their price, the more people value them, the better they hold their price. Read the full article on Appreciating Assets.If you want to find out about opportunities your luxury assets can reveal, do not hesitate to contact Hannah Lindsay on Hannah.Lindsay@borro.com or 0808 250 6706.

Gadgets & Trends 27 May 2016

the history of dive watches

There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. The History Of Dive WatchesFEATURE ARTICLES35  COMMENTSAPRIL 27, 2014BY DAVID BREDAN There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. It had been clear that wristwatches would never gain popularity unless these issues were gone for good. Among the primary sources for all these problems were water, humidity and dust, all easily finding their way into the movement through the gaps around the crown and in between the inaccurately machined and assembled case elements. They would make components rust, cause lubricants to not function as they should and ultimately force gears and pinions to lock up and springs to deteriorate. So, first of all, if watches were to be worn on the wrist–giving them much greater exposure to these elements–there were some considerable makeovers to be performed as far as the manufacturing and assembling processes were concerned.In harmony with what we have seen so many times while discussing the history of watches, it was the ingenious ideas of some engineers as well as the increasingly fierce competition in between key companies that led to the birth of some of the most important technological developments. Over the years, several great minds set to work to ultimately create revolutionary solutions which banished old ideas of the past. They engineered new designs that would serve to keep watches running throughout the following decades, or centuries even, designs on which we oftentimes rely even today.The first step was to realize the source of the problems and then identify possible solutions so as to permanently rule them out. Pocket watches of the time–and note that we are talking about early 20th century here–and especially their cases were not crafted with high resistance and durability in mind. They were cherished and highly valued items and hence they spent incomparably less time exposed to nature's elements than wristwatches did and do today. As we pointed out above, their cases bore little to no seals around the crown and universally they were made and assembled in a way that allowed fine dust and humidity get into the case and the movement.Paving the way to the creation of the first waterproof wristwatch was one of the most important brands of today: Rolex, and most notably its founder, Hans Wilsdorf. Among the most obvious and easy-to-perform solutions were the use of additional, external cases, ones that would hermetically seal the "real" case of the watch. A great example of this is the Rolex Hermetic or Submarine from 1922 (not to be confused with the Submariner which is a completely different watch from three decades later). What the Hermetic offered was a small round-cased watch with a chunky external case around it, which had a "lid" that would screw down onto it. It worked like a jar where once you screw on the top, the jar is sealed for good. This made sense here as there were no properly developed crown sealing systems and the lid covered that as well. The problem this created was that every time the hand-wound movement was to be rewound or the time needed to be set, the lid had to be removed and then put on again. The frequent use meant that the grooves on the side of the brass lid and the threads on the inside of it wore out quickly, necessitating repairs.The History Of Dive WatchesFEATURE ARTICLES35  COMMENTSAPRIL 27, 2014BY DAVID BREDAN There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. It had been clear that wristwatches would never gain popularity unless these issues were gone for good. Among the primary sources for all these problems were water, humidity and dust, all easily finding their way into the movement through the gaps around the crown and in between the inaccurately machined and assembled case elements. They would make components rust, cause lubricants to not function as they should and ultimately force gears and pinions to lock up and springs to deteriorate. So, first of all, if watches were to be worn on the wrist–giving them much greater exposure to these elements–there were some considerable makeovers to be performed as far as the manufacturing and assembling processes were concerned.In harmony with what we have seen so many times while discussing the history of watches, it was the ingenious ideas of some engineers as well as the increasingly fierce competition in between key companies that led to the birth of some of the most important technological developments. Over the years, several great minds set to work to ultimately create revolutionary solutions which banished old ideas of the past. They engineered new designs that would serve to keep watches running throughout the following decades, or centuries even, designs on which we oftentimes rely even today.The first step was to realize the source of the problems and then identify possible solutions so as to permanently rule them out. Pocket watches of the time–and note that we are talking about early 20th century here–and especially their cases were not crafted with high resistance and durability in mind. They were cherished and highly valued items and hence they spent incomparably less time exposed to nature's elements than wristwatches did and do today. As we pointed out above, their cases bore little to no seals around the crown and universally they were made and assembled in a way that allowed fine dust and humidity get into the case and the movement. Shown here is the Rolex Hermetic (or Submarine) with its "lid" removed, revealing the crown and the inner case of the watch. Source: rolexblog.blogspot.comPaving the way to the creation of the first waterproof wristwatch was one of the most important brands of today: Rolex, and most notably its founder, Hans Wilsdorf. Among the most obvious and easy-to-perform solutions were the use of additional, external cases, ones that would hermetically seal the "real" case of the watch. A great example of this is the Rolex Hermetic or Submarine from 1922 (not to be confused with the Submariner which is a completely different watch from three decades later). What the Hermetic offered was a small round-cased watch with a chunky external case around it, which had a "lid" that would screw down onto it. It worked like a jar where once you screw on the top, the jar is sealed for good. This made sense here as there were no properly developed crown sealing systems and the lid covered that as well. The problem this created was that every time the hand-wound movement was to be rewound or the time needed to be set, the lid had to be removed and then put on again. The frequent use meant that the grooves on the side of the brass lid and the threads on the inside of it wore out quickly, necessitating repairs. An old advertisement showing Borgel's patented case construction, circa early 1900s. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was clear then that these oversized (because these chunky cases actually fit the term oversized) cases had no real future, at least not for the civil consumer. A more practical and more durable solution was needed and this meant there was no other way but to integrate all waterproofing into the watch's case. François Borgel, a Genevan master case maker had filed two patents, in 1891 and 1903, respectively, for two slightly different watch cases that had threaded parts. A major upside of this design was that it omitted the external case. Instead it would enable the "normal" case to achieve same levels of isolation. Speaking about the more advanced 1903 patent, it comprised a threaded ring that would go around the movement and bezel, and the case back would be screwed onto the outer, threaded surface of this ring. This resulted in a superior seal, without having to use a chunky external cover.The History Of Dive WatchesFEATURE ARTICLES35  COMMENTSAPRIL 27, 2014BY DAVID BREDAN There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. It had been clear that wristwatches would never gain popularity unless these issues were gone for good. Among the primary sources for all these problems were water, humidity and dust, all easily finding their way into the movement through the gaps around the crown and in between the inaccurately machined and assembled case elements. They would make components rust, cause lubricants to not function as they should and ultimately force gears and pinions to lock up and springs to deteriorate. So, first of all, if watches were to be worn on the wrist–giving them much greater exposure to these elements–there were some considerable makeovers to be performed as far as the manufacturing and assembling processes were concerned.In harmony with what we have seen so many times while discussing the history of watches, it was the ingenious ideas of some engineers as well as the increasingly fierce competition in between key companies that led to the birth of some of the most important technological developments. Over the years, several great minds set to work to ultimately create revolutionary solutions which banished old ideas of the past. They engineered new designs that would serve to keep watches running throughout the following decades, or centuries even, designs on which we oftentimes rely even today.The first step was to realize the source of the problems and then identify possible solutions so as to permanently rule them out. Pocket watches of the time–and note that we are talking about early 20th century here–and especially their cases were not crafted with high resistance and durability in mind. They were cherished and highly valued items and hence they spent incomparably less time exposed to nature's elements than wristwatches did and do today. As we pointed out above, their cases bore little to no seals around the crown and universally they were made and assembled in a way that allowed fine dust and humidity get into the case and the movement. Shown here is the Rolex Hermetic (or Submarine) with its "lid" removed, revealing the crown and the inner case of the watch. Source: rolexblog.blogspot.comPaving the way to the creation of the first waterproof wristwatch was one of the most important brands of today: Rolex, and most notably its founder, Hans Wilsdorf. Among the most obvious and easy-to-perform solutions were the use of additional, external cases, ones that would hermetically seal the "real" case of the watch. A great example of this is the Rolex Hermetic or Submarine from 1922 (not to be confused with the Submariner which is a completely different watch from three decades later). What the Hermetic offered was a small round-cased watch with a chunky external case around it, which had a "lid" that would screw down onto it. It worked like a jar where once you screw on the top, the jar is sealed for good. This made sense here as there were no properly developed crown sealing systems and the lid covered that as well. The problem this created was that every time the hand-wound movement was to be rewound or the time needed to be set, the lid had to be removed and then put on again. The frequent use meant that the grooves on the side of the brass lid and the threads on the inside of it wore out quickly, necessitating repairs. An old advertisement showing Borgel's patented case construction, circa early 1900s. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was clear then that these oversized (because these chunky cases actually fit the term oversized) cases had no real future, at least not for the civil consumer. A more practical and more durable solution was needed and this meant there was no other way but to integrate all waterproofing into the watch's case. François Borgel, a Genevan master case maker had filed two patents, in 1891 and 1903, respectively, for two slightly different watch cases that had threaded parts. A major upside of this design was that it omitted the external case. Instead it would enable the "normal" case to achieve same levels of isolation. Speaking about the more advanced 1903 patent, it comprised a threaded ring that would go around the movement and bezel, and the case back would be screwed onto the outer, threaded surface of this ring. This resulted in a superior seal, without having to use a chunky external cover. Seen here is the patent for the early screw-down design by Perregaux and Perret. The part marked 16 is the seal, located on the outside of the case. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherWhile this meant a huge leap forward and major manufactures like IWC and Longines have used Borgel's cases for some of their watches, another major issue remained an unsolved mystery: the sealing of the crown. Humidity and fine dust could still find its way into the movement, albeit now at a slower rate, thanks to the threaded case design. The original idea–or at least the first patent–for a waterproof crown is credited to Paul Perregaux and Georges Perret. In October, 1925 they applied for a patent for a screw down crown, as seen on the extract from the patent above. As in the case of most breakthrough developments, the two watchmakers' design also showed some imperfections.To begin with, the unscrewing of the crown happened in the same direction as the winding of the mainspring. To secure it again, the crown was to be turned the other way around, against the winding ratchet. Once the watch was fully wound and the crown was set in its secured position, it could not be unscrewed again until the mainspring wound down to some extent. Furthermore, the black component marked with number 16 on the image above is the sealing which the crown (once screwed onto the case) would push against, to actually create the seal. However, this sealing–owing to the limited manufacturing abilities of the time–could not have been made of more durable materials, so it was leather, cork or felt. Since it was installed on the outside of the case, it would quickly lose its isolating properties, making frequent replacements necessary. Without getting much too nerdy, let's briefly look at what–and who–made this already great idea perfect.It was Hans Wilsdorf, founder and then-director of Rolex, who saw the potential in Perregaux's and Perret's invention as he realized that this idea coupled with the threaded case designs could ultimately create the first truly waterproof watch. He moved quickly and purchased the Swiss rights from the inventors and applied for the patent in the US, UK, and in Germany as well in 1926-1927. In the image above you see the results of a year's additional development in the form of Wilsdorf's own patent for the screw-down crown. Patented as CH 120848, one of the major improvements was the relocation of the seal from the outside of the case into the crown tube itself, while also making it from lead to enhance its durability.Furthermore, the engineers of Rolex–and those working at C.R. Spillman SA, the case supplier of Rolex at the time–found a solution concerning the winding of the movement when the crown was being unscrewed: the crown initially rotates free from the stem and engages with it only when fully pulled out. This was achieved with what is marked with 9 (in red) and 12 (in yellow) on the image above. It is difficult to judge from the image, but these are two rectangular parts that engage once the crown is in the extracted position, hence enabling the wearer of the watch to set the time even if the mainspring is fully wound.Rolex combined its improved crown design and the threaded case in a new model that became the first durable and reliable waterproof watch. Called the Oyster, it was a remarkable achievement, albeit one against which the general public remained skeptical. To learn more about this iconic piece check out Ariel's article about the Oyster here. For now, we will concentrate on the process of how it turned into the legendary watch that it is and the way it managed to change people's attitude towards waterproof watches. It was in 1927 that the perfect opportunity arose to publicly prove the abilities of his watch and Wilsdorf was again quick to react. It was then that the young British secretary and long distance swimmer Mercedes Gleitze set herself the challenge of swimming across the English channel–for the second time. Why the second? Well, the story goes that Mercedes actually swam across the channel once, only to be "topped" by another woman who claimed to have done the same feat considerably quicker, around 13 hours instead of Gleitze's 15 hours.At the time this attracted significant media attention and Wilsdorf wanted to have his share of it. Without going into much detail, we will just say that the other lady turned out to be a liar who admitted that she had not swam across the channel at all; a claim that made the media and the public question whether Mercedes' previous achievement was a fabrication as well. At last, Wilsdorf agreed with Gleitze that she would wear the Oyster on a necklace throughout her "vindication-swim," where she would prove the nay-sayers wrong . It is a lesser known fact that on this second attempt she actually did not make it all the way across the channel, but at this point it didn't matter. A few days later the story of her and her watch were discussed on the first page of the Daily Mail, bringing the general public the first tangible proof of a waterproof watch.  To make a more lasting impression Wilsdorf also arranged with retailers to have the Oyster showcased in their windows, set in a fish tank full of water. In conclusion, thanks to the exceptional developments and of course the witty marketing moves of the founder, Rolex–and with it the waterproof watch–made its first steps on the road that ultimately led it to prevail around the world.Around the 1930s several other brands wanted to get their share from this new market segment.  Turn your attention to two interesting interpretations of the waterproof watch, conceived by two already major brands: Omega and Cartier. Even at this time Cartier had been known as the go-to brand for the kings, monarchs and the world's elite in general. This is exemplified by an order Cartier received in 1932, placed by the Pasha of Marrakech who, as the legend says, wanted a waterproof watch which he could wear during his occasional swims. Cartier answered the Pasha's needs with a unique piece equipped with a round waterproof case as well as a little screw-on cap that served to seal the crown, hanging on a tiny chain fixed to the case itself. From 1943, and then from its 1985 "re-issue" up to this day, the watch is known as Pasha de Cartier, an iconic watch that is seldom recognized as one of the earliest examples among waterproof timepieces.Around the mid-twenties, diving, an activity dedicated solely to scientific, military or "adventure-related" causes, started to become increasingly ubiquitous, brought about by the special breathing equipment developed by Yves Le Prieur in 1926 and then in 1933. The point of these diving related inventions was to make diving easier, less dangerous, while allowing them to happen for longer intervals, at greater depths. It is as complex of a challenge as it sounds, and then some. And while it took quite a few more years until diving could become more widespread, it had already been obvious that there was a need for wristwatches developed with the unique needs of this dangerous activity in mind. This is where Omega comes into the picture.The History Of Dive WatchesFEATURE ARTICLES35  COMMENTSAPRIL 27, 2014BY DAVID BREDAN There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. It had been clear that wristwatches would never gain popularity unless these issues were gone for good. Among the primary sources for all these problems were water, humidity and dust, all easily finding their way into the movement through the gaps around the crown and in between the inaccurately machined and assembled case elements. They would make components rust, cause lubricants to not function as they should and ultimately force gears and pinions to lock up and springs to deteriorate. So, first of all, if watches were to be worn on the wrist–giving them much greater exposure to these elements–there were some considerable makeovers to be performed as far as the manufacturing and assembling processes were concerned.In harmony with what we have seen so many times while discussing the history of watches, it was the ingenious ideas of some engineers as well as the increasingly fierce competition in between key companies that led to the birth of some of the most important technological developments. Over the years, several great minds set to work to ultimately create revolutionary solutions which banished old ideas of the past. They engineered new designs that would serve to keep watches running throughout the following decades, or centuries even, designs on which we oftentimes rely even today.The first step was to realize the source of the problems and then identify possible solutions so as to permanently rule them out. Pocket watches of the time–and note that we are talking about early 20th century here–and especially their cases were not crafted with high resistance and durability in mind. They were cherished and highly valued items and hence they spent incomparably less time exposed to nature's elements than wristwatches did and do today. As we pointed out above, their cases bore little to no seals around the crown and universally they were made and assembled in a way that allowed fine dust and humidity get into the case and the movement. Shown here is the Rolex Hermetic (or Submarine) with its "lid" removed, revealing the crown and the inner case of the watch. Source: rolexblog.blogspot.comPaving the way to the creation of the first waterproof wristwatch was one of the most important brands of today: Rolex, and most notably its founder, Hans Wilsdorf. Among the most obvious and easy-to-perform solutions were the use of additional, external cases, ones that would hermetically seal the "real" case of the watch. A great example of this is the Rolex Hermetic or Submarine from 1922 (not to be confused with the Submariner which is a completely different watch from three decades later). What the Hermetic offered was a small round-cased watch with a chunky external case around it, which had a "lid" that would screw down onto it. It worked like a jar where once you screw on the top, the jar is sealed for good. This made sense here as there were no properly developed crown sealing systems and the lid covered that as well. The problem this created was that every time the hand-wound movement was to be rewound or the time needed to be set, the lid had to be removed and then put on again. The frequent use meant that the grooves on the side of the brass lid and the threads on the inside of it wore out quickly, necessitating repairs. An old advertisement showing Borgel's patented case construction, circa early 1900s. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was clear then that these oversized (because these chunky cases actually fit the term oversized) cases had no real future, at least not for the civil consumer. A more practical and more durable solution was needed and this meant there was no other way but to integrate all waterproofing into the watch's case. François Borgel, a Genevan master case maker had filed two patents, in 1891 and 1903, respectively, for two slightly different watch cases that had threaded parts. A major upside of this design was that it omitted the external case. Instead it would enable the "normal" case to achieve same levels of isolation. Speaking about the more advanced 1903 patent, it comprised a threaded ring that would go around the movement and bezel, and the case back would be screwed onto the outer, threaded surface of this ring. This resulted in a superior seal, without having to use a chunky external cover. Seen here is the patent for the early screw-down design by Perregaux and Perret. The part marked 16 is the seal, located on the outside of the case. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherWhile this meant a huge leap forward and major manufactures like IWC and Longines have used Borgel's cases for some of their watches, another major issue remained an unsolved mystery: the sealing of the crown. Humidity and fine dust could still find its way into the movement, albeit now at a slower rate, thanks to the threaded case design. The original idea–or at least the first patent–for a waterproof crown is credited to Paul Perregaux and Georges Perret. In October, 1925 they applied for a patent for a screw down crown, as seen on the extract from the patent above. As in the case of most breakthrough developments, the two watchmakers' design also showed some imperfections.To begin with, the unscrewing of the crown happened in the same direction as the winding of the mainspring. To secure it again, the crown was to be turned the other way around, against the winding ratchet. Once the watch was fully wound and the crown was set in its secured position, it could not be unscrewed again until the mainspring wound down to some extent. Furthermore, the black component marked with number 16 on the image above is the sealing which the crown (once screwed onto the case) would push against, to actually create the seal. However, this sealing–owing to the limited manufacturing abilities of the time–could not have been made of more durable materials, so it was leather, cork or felt. Since it was installed on the outside of the case, it would quickly lose its isolating properties, making frequent replacements necessary. Without getting much too nerdy, let's briefly look at what–and who–made this already great idea perfect. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf's patent for the improved screw-down crown design. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was Hans Wilsdorf, founder and then-director of Rolex, who saw the potential in Perregaux's and Perret's invention as he realized that this idea coupled with the threaded case designs could ultimately create the first truly waterproof watch. He moved quickly and purchased the Swiss rights from the inventors and applied for the patent in the US, UK, and in Germany as well in 1926-1927. In the image above you see the results of a year's additional development in the form of Wilsdorf's own patent for the screw-down crown. Patented as CH 120848, one of the major improvements was the relocation of the seal from the outside of the case into the crown tube itself, while also making it from lead to enhance its durability.Furthermore, the engineers of Rolex–and those working at C.R. Spillman SA, the case supplier of Rolex at the time–found a solution concerning the winding of the movement when the crown was being unscrewed: the crown initially rotates free from the stem and engages with it only when fully pulled out. This was achieved with what is marked with 9 (in red) and 12 (in yellow) on the image above. It is difficult to judge from the image, but these are two rectangular parts that engage once the crown is in the extracted position, hence enabling the wearer of the watch to set the time even if the mainspring is fully wound. The Rolex Oyster next to the Daily Mail headline with long distance swimmer Mercedes Gleitze who wore the watch in an attempt to swim across the English channelRolex combined its improved crown design and the threaded case in a new model that became the first durable and reliable waterproof watch. Called the Oyster, it was a remarkable achievement, albeit one against which the general public remained skeptical. To learn more about this iconic piece check out Ariel's article about the Oyster here. For now, we will concentrate on the process of how it turned into the legendary watch that it is and the way it managed to change people's attitude towards waterproof watches. It was in 1927 that the perfect opportunity arose to publicly prove the abilities of his watch and Wilsdorf was again quick to react. It was then that the young British secretary and long distance swimmer Mercedes Gleitze set herself the challenge of swimming across the English channel–for the second time. Why the second? Well, the story goes that Mercedes actually swam across the channel once, only to be "topped" by another woman who claimed to have done the same feat considerably quicker, around 13 hours instead of Gleitze's 15 hours.At the time this attracted significant media attention and Wilsdorf wanted to have his share of it. Without going into much detail, we will just say that the other lady turned out to be a liar who admitted that she had not swam across the channel at all; a claim that made the media and the public question whether Mercedes' previous achievement was a fabrication as well. At last, Wilsdorf agreed with Gleitze that she would wear the Oyster on a necklace throughout her "vindication-swim," where she would prove the nay-sayers wrong . It is a lesser known fact that on this second attempt she actually did not make it all the way across the channel, but at this point it didn't matter. A few days later the story of her and her watch were discussed on the first page of the Daily Mail, bringing the general public the first tangible proof of a waterproof watch.  To make a more lasting impression Wilsdorf also arranged with retailers to have the Oyster showcased in their windows, set in a fish tank full of water. In conclusion, thanks to the exceptional developments and of course the witty marketing moves of the founder, Rolex–and with it the waterproof watch–made its first steps on the road that ultimately led it to prevail around the world. The Pasha de Cartier with its trademark crown cup and its tiny chain. Credit: Sotheby'sAround the 1930s several other brands wanted to get their share from this new market segment.  Turn your attention to two interesting interpretations of the waterproof watch, conceived by two already major brands: Omega and Cartier. Even at this time Cartier had been known as the go-to brand for the kings, monarchs and the world's elite in general. This is exemplified by an order Cartier received in 1932, placed by the Pasha of Marrakech who, as the legend says, wanted a waterproof watch which he could wear during his occasional swims. Cartier answered the Pasha's needs with a unique piece equipped with a round waterproof case as well as a little screw-on cap that served to seal the crown, hanging on a tiny chain fixed to the case itself. From 1943, and then from its 1985 "re-issue" up to this day, the watch is known as Pasha de Cartier, an iconic watch that is seldom recognized as one of the earliest examples among waterproof timepieces.Around the mid-twenties, diving, an activity dedicated solely to scientific, military or "adventure-related" causes, started to become increasingly ubiquitous, brought about by the special breathing equipment developed by Yves Le Prieur in 1926 and then in 1933. The point of these diving related inventions was to make diving easier, less dangerous, while allowing them to happen for longer intervals, at greater depths. It is as complex of a challenge as it sounds, and then some. And while it took quite a few more years until diving could become more widespread, it had already been obvious that there was a need for wristwatches developed with the unique needs of this dangerous activity in mind. This is where Omega comes into the picture. See, while the original Rolex Oyster and the Pasha de Cartier (and other lesser-known, albeit similar waterproof watches of the time) performed rather well when it came to keeping moisture, sand and relatively small amounts of water out of the case, they were not at all worthy of consideration when it came to the much more demanding, deeper dives. The first watch which was designed to tackle greater challenges, and hence to work with divers, was Omega's Marine from 1932. This model brought the external, hermetically sealed case to the forefront again, something with Rolex's innovations in mind may seem to be an outdated choice. Still, it actually was the fact that Rolex had those patents to its name that Omega had no other choice but to go with the external case, not to mention the fact that where they were going only a strong external shell could be used. With all that said, Omega's final product turned out to be rather modern anyhow, as the Marine proved to be true to its name and became the world's first diving watch, i.e. the first watch to successfully complete some seriously deep dives.What made the Marine so unique and so capable was this two-part case, which had its top and bottom pieces connected to the straps, while a large clasp locked them securely on the case back. Furthermore, the Marine was the first watch to have a synthetic sapphire front, clearly an important step forwards in terms of reliability compared to any other material used at the time. The "package" was completed by a seal leather strap which, by Omega's claims, were extremely resistant to salt water. The concept was ready so it was time to put it to its paces: Omega, likely "inspired" by Rolex's marketing successes, set out to prove the special capabilities of their watch by testing through a series of challenges, challenges which were of previously unimaginable difficulty. In 1936 a couple of Marine watches spent minutes in hot water (of 85 degree Celsius) and were then quickly submerged to a depth of 70 meters in the 5 degree Celsius cold waters of Lake Geneva for thirty minutes. When they were taken out, all pieces (two complete watches and a case with no movement inside) were functioning perfectly, showing no traces of water inside.Three years after the successful tests, in 1939, Omega revealed the Marine Standard. It was a slightly redesigned version of the Marine from 1932, as this new piece served to transfer the Marine and most of its abilities into the publicly available collections of the brand. The case had become less complex to reduce manufacturing costs, but it retained the rectangular shape of the original. It was due to this angular shape that–quite obviously–no threaded case components could have been used. Instead, in order to properly seal the sapphire crystal and the case, they went on to use rubber gaskets, a solution still used today!On the first series of Marine Standards the sapphire crystal was fitted from below the bezel (i.e. from the caseback side). With that done, Omega would install the dial, the movement and the crown. The problem this construction created was that while as pressure built up it pressed the case onto the caseback, and pushed the crystal towards the inside of the watch, weakening the seals. This decreased the Standard's water resistance to a mere two atmospheres (around 20 meters), which was incomparable to its predecessor's performance. For the following generations, however, the crystal had been installed from "above," a process that, although widely used today, at the time (during the early '40s) was a novel idea that substantially increased water resistance.Looking back at the earliest generations of waterproof watches we can conclude that some of the greatest companies have all developed their own answers to the same problem: sealing the gaps between the case, the bezel and the crown. And while they were quick to top their latest developments with even more efficient ones, they were also unaware at the time that collectively they had most of the puzzle pieces which would ultimately make up the modern diver's watch. Let's discover the transition and see what exactly led to the dive watch, as we know it today.The History Of Dive WatchesFEATURE ARTICLES35  COMMENTSAPRIL 27, 2014BY DAVID BREDAN There are many things we take for granted when speaking about modern timepieces, and one of those is water resistance. There are no "water proof" watches, as that implies water would not be able to enter them under any circumstances, so we use the term "water resistant." The history of water resistant watches really began in the 1920s, but it was not until later that the serious water resistant diving watch came into existence. Today dive watches are the most popular type of sport watch, not necessarily because people use them to dive, but because of their style, promise of durability, and utilitarian value.Regardless of whether one pays a few hundred or several thousand dollars for a watch, they rightfully expect reliability, accuracy, and comfort. Having said that, we are rarely reminded of just how much time it took wristwatches to transform from fragile pieces of art into workhorse instruments that can put up with most of the challenges we expose them to during our daily lives. Today we are looking into the history of water resistant and diving watches.  We will discuss the most important historical models, their respective design elements, as well as the challenges they have faced and conquered.Much like in the case of our article on the History of ETA, the Swiss movement maker, we have to begin with a disclaimer, noting in advance that there is no one source that would list all relevant information. Instead, there is a great number of different–and superb–sources that detail different aspects at length, often revealing contradictory information. With that said, let's dive head-first into the more than a century deep history of waterproof watches.The history of the wristwatch deserves a dedicated article which it will receive another time, but for now we will say that it was not off to an easy start. The first men's watches worn on the wrist were created from pocket watches that had lugs soldered onto their cases. Soldiers of the late 1800s and then of World War I sought a faster, easier, dare we say, "hands-free" way of telling the time while in combat. In general, however, wristwatches were considered to be womanly jewels that needed to be handled with excessive care. Consequently, men did not really care for early examples of these timepieces. The issue was their notoriously poor reliability: they were prone to breaking as they were exposed to a significantly greater amount of shocks, humidity and temperature changes when worn on the wrist and not inside the pockets of coats and vests. It had been clear that wristwatches would never gain popularity unless these issues were gone for good. Among the primary sources for all these problems were water, humidity and dust, all easily finding their way into the movement through the gaps around the crown and in between the inaccurately machined and assembled case elements. They would make components rust, cause lubricants to not function as they should and ultimately force gears and pinions to lock up and springs to deteriorate. So, first of all, if watches were to be worn on the wrist–giving them much greater exposure to these elements–there were some considerable makeovers to be performed as far as the manufacturing and assembling processes were concerned.In harmony with what we have seen so many times while discussing the history of watches, it was the ingenious ideas of some engineers as well as the increasingly fierce competition in between key companies that led to the birth of some of the most important technological developments. Over the years, several great minds set to work to ultimately create revolutionary solutions which banished old ideas of the past. They engineered new designs that would serve to keep watches running throughout the following decades, or centuries even, designs on which we oftentimes rely even today.The first step was to realize the source of the problems and then identify possible solutions so as to permanently rule them out. Pocket watches of the time–and note that we are talking about early 20th century here–and especially their cases were not crafted with high resistance and durability in mind. They were cherished and highly valued items and hence they spent incomparably less time exposed to nature's elements than wristwatches did and do today. As we pointed out above, their cases bore little to no seals around the crown and universally they were made and assembled in a way that allowed fine dust and humidity get into the case and the movement. Shown here is the Rolex Hermetic (or Submarine) with its "lid" removed, revealing the crown and the inner case of the watch. Source: rolexblog.blogspot.comPaving the way to the creation of the first waterproof wristwatch was one of the most important brands of today: Rolex, and most notably its founder, Hans Wilsdorf. Among the most obvious and easy-to-perform solutions were the use of additional, external cases, ones that would hermetically seal the "real" case of the watch. A great example of this is the Rolex Hermetic or Submarine from 1922 (not to be confused with the Submariner which is a completely different watch from three decades later). What the Hermetic offered was a small round-cased watch with a chunky external case around it, which had a "lid" that would screw down onto it. It worked like a jar where once you screw on the top, the jar is sealed for good. This made sense here as there were no properly developed crown sealing systems and the lid covered that as well. The problem this created was that every time the hand-wound movement was to be rewound or the time needed to be set, the lid had to be removed and then put on again. The frequent use meant that the grooves on the side of the brass lid and the threads on the inside of it wore out quickly, necessitating repairs. An old advertisement showing Borgel's patented case construction, circa early 1900s. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was clear then that these oversized (because these chunky cases actually fit the term oversized) cases had no real future, at least not for the civil consumer. A more practical and more durable solution was needed and this meant there was no other way but to integrate all waterproofing into the watch's case. François Borgel, a Genevan master case maker had filed two patents, in 1891 and 1903, respectively, for two slightly different watch cases that had threaded parts. A major upside of this design was that it omitted the external case. Instead it would enable the "normal" case to achieve same levels of isolation. Speaking about the more advanced 1903 patent, it comprised a threaded ring that would go around the movement and bezel, and the case back would be screwed onto the outer, threaded surface of this ring. This resulted in a superior seal, without having to use a chunky external cover. Seen here is the patent for the early screw-down design by Perregaux and Perret. The part marked 16 is the seal, located on the outside of the case. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherWhile this meant a huge leap forward and major manufactures like IWC and Longines have used Borgel's cases for some of their watches, another major issue remained an unsolved mystery: the sealing of the crown. Humidity and fine dust could still find its way into the movement, albeit now at a slower rate, thanks to the threaded case design. The original idea–or at least the first patent–for a waterproof crown is credited to Paul Perregaux and Georges Perret. In October, 1925 they applied for a patent for a screw down crown, as seen on the extract from the patent above. As in the case of most breakthrough developments, the two watchmakers' design also showed some imperfections.To begin with, the unscrewing of the crown happened in the same direction as the winding of the mainspring. To secure it again, the crown was to be turned the other way around, against the winding ratchet. Once the watch was fully wound and the crown was set in its secured position, it could not be unscrewed again until the mainspring wound down to some extent. Furthermore, the black component marked with number 16 on the image above is the sealing which the crown (once screwed onto the case) would push against, to actually create the seal. However, this sealing–owing to the limited manufacturing abilities of the time–could not have been made of more durable materials, so it was leather, cork or felt. Since it was installed on the outside of the case, it would quickly lose its isolating properties, making frequent replacements necessary. Without getting much too nerdy, let's briefly look at what–and who–made this already great idea perfect. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf's patent for the improved screw-down crown design. Image Source: VintageWatchstraps.com © David BoettcherIt was Hans Wilsdorf, founder and then-director of Rolex, who saw the potential in Perregaux's and Perret's invention as he realized that this idea coupled with the threaded case designs could ultimately create the first truly waterproof watch. He moved quickly and purchased the Swiss rights from the inventors and applied for the patent in the US, UK, and in Germany as well in 1926-1927. In the image above you see the results of a year's additional development in the form of Wilsdorf's own patent for the screw-down crown. Patented as CH 120848, one of the major improvements was the relocation of the seal from the outside of the case into the crown tube itself, while also making it from lead to enhance its durability.Furthermore, the engineers of Rolex–and those working at C.R. Spillman SA, the case supplier of Rolex at the time–found a solution concerning the winding of the movement when the crown was being unscrewed: the crown initially rotates free from the stem and engages with it only when fully pulled out. This was achieved with what is marked with 9 (in red) and 12 (in yellow) on the image above. It is difficult to judge from the image, but these are two rectangular parts that engage once the crown is in the extracted position, hence enabling the wearer of the watch to set the time even if the mainspring is fully wound. The Rolex Oyster next to the Daily Mail headline with long distance swimmer Mercedes Gleitze who wore the watch in an attempt to swim across the English channelRolex combined its improved crown design and the threaded case in a new model that became the first durable and reliable waterproof watch. Called the Oyster, it was a remarkable achievement, albeit one against which the general public remained skeptical. To learn more about this iconic piece check out Ariel's article about the Oyster here. For now, we will concentrate on the process of how it turned into the legendary watch that it is and the way it managed to change people's attitude towards waterproof watches. It was in 1927 that the perfect opportunity arose to publicly prove the abilities of his watch and Wilsdorf was again quick to react. It was then that the young British secretary and long

Gadgets & Trends 12 May 2016

cashless payments with luxury watches

Contactless payments are now part of our daily lives, and it looks like the trend is on the up and up. Zombified, we barely look at the evermore redundant cashier, as we reach into our pockets and lift our cards to the reader. But say goodbye to the hand-in-pocket phase: NFC technology in your wristwatch can take care of that! NFC technology – or Near Field Communication to give it its full name – is a relatively simple concept not unlike Bluetooth in its application. A chip loaded with personal data (such as passwords, bank information, boarding passes etcetera) can be fitted to pretty much anything and turn that device into a master key for life. It didn’t take too long for the luxury watch industry to cotton-on to NFC’s potential. With the emergence of smartwatches threatening the very guts of Haute Horlogerie, the inclusion of a small NFC chip to enhance the functionality of a luxury timepiece without usurping the movement itself, seemed like a match made in heaven. But is it? Find out more by reading the full opinion piece on Appreciating Assets. If you want to find out about opportunities your luxury assets can reveal, do not hesitate to contact Hannah Lindsay on Hannah.Lindsay@borro.com or 0808 250 6706.

Gadgets & Trends 02 May 2016

google patents smart lenses

Google Glass may have been too clunky to succeed in its original version, but the search giant will find its way into your eyeballs one way or another. According to a new patent filing, the company has devised a method to inject a device directly into your eyeballs.Per the patent filing, the device is meant to replace your eye's natural lens and is injected in a solution that congeals and attaches to your lens capsule. While the intra-ocular device is mostly intended to correct poor vision, it is so much more than just an permanent set of contact lenses or an alternative to surgery. As Forbes reports, the device includes an electronic lens as well as storage, sensors, a battery and radio components meant to communicate with a separate, external device that has some additional processing power. The internal battery, the one that will apparently live inside your eyeball, will draw power from what the patent calls an "energy harvesting antenna."Google's focus on eyeballs started in earnest back in 2014, when the company filed a patent for smart contact lenses that included a very tiny wireless chip and the ability to monitor a wearer's glucose levels. That patent moved closer to becoming a reality when Google partnered with healthcare company Novartis to help develop the technology. As for the competition, Sony has also jumped into the game with a patent for a smart contact lens that comes complete with a camera, zoom and aperture control.

Gadgets & Trends 26 Nov 2015

‘pining’ for the holidays

The time is upon us. Any one who doesn’t consider themselves scrooges can admit that the holiday season brings about a quintessential sense of joy, comfort, and love. No method brings the treasured memories of this season alive more than the sense of smell. Scent has the power to encapsulate an entire experience, creating a fast track journey to a flood of memories. Air Aroma knows that much of the magic of the holiday season lies within those nuanced memories, which are rapidly activated by a distinctive smell, like pine trees. Bringing pine fragrance to your home, business, or space automatically transports people to specific places and stages of their lives, enabling them to relive and re-experience treasured holiday times. It is not just sentiment that makes pine so appealing though; the earthy and invigorating aroma is also extremely grounding and centering. Pine creates a feeling of being energized and cleansed, which is a powerful way to stay present in the moment when feeling anxious or stressed. Pine can also be combined with many other scents like tree oils and spices to create a true aromatic experience. One of our best selling essential oils, that incorporates pine, is our Christmas fragrance, which balances Pine, Clove, Fir Needle, Cinnamon, White Cypress for an invigorating and spicy aroma. A new addition to this seasons fragrance offering called Holiday Tree combines Pine Needle, Nutmeg, Chestnut, Holly Berry for the perfect holiday ambiance. These fragrance notes can be that warm hug from your loved one, that sensation of experiencing a silent snowfall, or the sense of connection when taking a walk through a crisp forest. Our Holiday fragrances can be purchased at the Air Aroma online store, or by contacting us direct.

Gadgets & Trends 09 Dec 2014

bluesmart suitcases

Introducing BlueSmart, the first super-connected carry-on, and an essential travel companion for wanderlusters in our digital age. Not only does this beauty fit in the overhead compartment… it comes with some pretty other crazy cool controls. The more you go, the more you’ll go gaga over this one! It locks. And yes, that lock is TSA accepted. Control it from afar with an app that allows you to open it for security, but lock it down when it’s out of safe hands. Avoid being an airport wall hugger. The suitcase wows with its own charging device that can power-up your phones and other portable devices multiple times before it needs to be plugged in again. Track your trends. The connected app gives you real-time reports with all the data from your trips, including miles traveled, airports visited and more. Avoid overage charges. The luggage’s built-in scale kicks in when you lift the handle, so you’ll know to unpack that extra pair of shoes that was going to cost you an extra $25! Never worry that your case is headed to Albany while you’re going to Atlanta. You can track the geolocation of your suitcase anywhere in the world via GPS with the app or the BlueSmart website. It packs itself… Sorry, not quite smart enough to handle that… yet.

Gadgets & Trends 08 Sep 2015

top 10 places to take a selfie

Paris’s Eiffel Tower has been named the most popular attraction in the world for taking selfies. The French landmark structure sees the most selfie pictures posted on Instagram, according to a survey of the top global selfie spots on the social network by travel site AttractionTix.com. It is followed by Disney World Florida, which has 9,870 selfies on the site, and by the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, with 8,860. In fourth and fifth place are London’s Big Ben and New York’s Empire State Building, starring in 8,780 and 8,430 selfies respectively. The selfie has become something of a cultural phenomenon, with accessories such as selfie hats and “sticks” now commonplace. The top 10 global selfie destinations on Instagram are: 1. Eiffel Tower, Paris (10,700) 2. Disney World, Florida (9,870) 3. Burj Khalifa, Dubai (8,860) 4. Big Ben, London (8,780) 5. Empire State Building, New York (8,430) 6. Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (4,970) 7. Disneyland Paris (4,740) 8. Colosseum, Rome (4,670) 9. Top of the Rock, New York (4,290) 10. London Bridge (3,820)

Gadgets & Trends 16 Aug 2015

app makes it possible to date with authentic video

Finding a real authentic video match is now a click away: Glimps, the first new video dating app for singles and promises to make searching for your perfect partner with only real genuine personal video profiles. The Glimps dating app available as beta version in the AppStore. After downloading the free app, users can sign in with Facebook or with email and quickly complete their profile. You can easily set your search preferences, which include age range, gender and distance. You can swipe to the left or right on the so-called mosaic screen to pass and move on to your next match. Click on video to play the full profile video (max 40 sec) and click on the glimps button to add the profile to your match overview. If the other person also likes you, you both get notifications and can contact each other for free via the chat. Users can always view and manage their matches. New Features With your personal account it is possible to view the video profiles based on your search preferences in the first tab and to chat with a match in the second tab. The third tab contains settings to edit the profile. The user will create a profile and upload it's profile video which is reviewed for nudity / abusive language, etc. Once the profile and video has been approved, the user can start viewing matching profiles and chat with other users. Collaboration Glimps has requested C.C.A. in early stage to support them with realizing and launching the glimps-dating app. Our collaboration consists of providing services in the area of project and implementation management, test services, marketing and PR.

Gadgets & Trends 03 Feb 2015

virtual laptop

The Solo Remote Access Device Contains the Knowledge of a Laptop Published: Jan 14, 2014 • References: tuvie It would be difficult to know what to expect from the Solo Remote Access Device until it has been switched on. Taking the relative size and dimensions of a camera lens, this compact contraption would actually be more powerful than a laptop. Twist Alexander Morrison's invention to reveal a couple of pop-out projectors. One of them angles downwards to produce an input interface while the other casts its image against a wall to become a sort of simulated screen. You can adjust the size of the display and customize your virtual keyboard and touchpad. Sensors read your gestures easily and translate your commands efficiently. One of the reasons why the Solo Remote Access Device is particularly innovative is because it can sync up with your office computer, providing you with all of your files and software when you take this to a meeting or away on business.

Gadgets & Trends 03 Aug 2015

air aroma creates scent of apples macbook

Greatest Hits is an artistic collaborative group comprising of Melbourne based artists Gavin Bell, Jarrah de Kuijer & Simon McGlinn. A years ago these young artists approached Air Aroma seeking assistance with creation of a unique fragrance for their upcoming art exhibition. The aroma requested for the project was the scent of an Apple product being opened for the first time. A distinctive scent can be observed when unwrapping a newly purchased Apple product from its packaging. Apple fans will certainly recognize this smell. The scent created for Greatest Hits encompasses the smell of the plastic wrap covering the box, printed ink on the cardboard, the smell of paper and plastic components within the box and of course the aluminum laptop which has come straight from the factory where it was assembled in China. The process of creating this signature fragrance started with an initial meeting with our client to understand the concept and desired effect of the fragrance. Once this was established, the ingredients for the fragrance had to be sourced. The scent requested by our client was quite unusual so we contacted our fragrance suppliers in the South of France to send over samples of fragrances with the aroma of glue, plastic, rubber and paper. Air Aroma fragrance designers then used these samples as ingredients to create a range of signature blend fragrances. The blends, each with unique recipes were then tested in the Air Aroma laboratory until a final fragrance was ultimately selected. To replicate the smell a brand new unopened Apple was sent to our fragrance lab in France. From there, professional perfume makers used the scents they observed unboxing the new Apple computer to source fragrance samples. On completion the laptop was sent back to Australia, travelling nearly 50,000kms and returned to our clients together with scent of an Apple Macbook Pro. The fragrance will be diffused with the Air Aroma Aroslim diffuser for the duration of their artistic exhibition in Melbourne. The fragrance forms part of their exhibition at West Space, which is entitled ‘De facto Standard’. The Apple unboxing scent was created for use at this particular exhibition only and is not available for purchase on our online retail store for personal use.

Gadgets & Trends 09 Dec 2014

mini's citysurf

If your MINI isn’t mini enough for you, you’re in luck. MINI introduced their newest concept in urban mobility, the all-electric MINI Citysurfer Concept to a crowd of journalists at the LA Auto Show today. An auxiliary transportation concept that is designed to help people navigate crowded urban environments, the Citysurfer makes it both easy and fun to get around town if you have a long way to travel between your parking space and your office or shopping destination. MINI Citysurfer promises to be safe, versatile and agile. Its large wheels and soft tires make it suitable for bumpy paths and rough pavement so often found in city centers. The low foot board and height-adjustable handlebars enhance stability and handling. The scooter has three brake systems. First, there’s recuperation braking via electric drive generator which recharges the battery while slowing you down. Then the hydraulic front and rear disc brakes operate independently. Because you ride it standing upright you’ll have no trouble seeing and being seen. Hit the thumb-operated accelerator and the Citysurfer can reach a top speed of 15 miles per hour. The lithium-ion battery has an electric range of 10 to 15 miles. You can charge the battery three ways: through conventional power outlet, a 12-volt power supply in an automobile and through brake energy recuperation. When the battery is completely discharged, the electric motor is automatically switched off and disconnected from the free-wheel hub in the rear wheel so you can ride it just like an old fashioned kick scooter. Weighing just 40 pounds, the Citysurfer folds to fit into small spaces, including (surprise, surprise) the trunk of a MINI Cooper. You can also carry it on to public transportation, to make the trip from your commuter rail station a little more fun.